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殇旭 发表于 2014-6-28 14:27:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1. There are a few misconceptions when it comes to what sound design for film is, so let’s get that out of the way first…
  2. •Sound design is not about assembling neat effects, loud gunshots or using a car crash SFX for every bang or crash in your film.
  3. •It is not about having the loudest film.

  4. Sound design is a process of experimentation to create an audio environment that supports the on-screen action and engages the audience. The true sound designer is constantly listening, learning and experimenting.



  1. Getting a good mix starts with clean and healthy signals from your sound recordist and boom operator. The dialogue to your film is an essential part of what’s going to translate the pictures to your audience in an emotional direction.

  2. So let’s dive in and explore the principals and techniques of obtaining a good mix for a film:
  3. •Gain staging and Volume
  4. •Compression
  5. •EQ
  6. •Reverb

  7. Gain Staging And Volume

  8. Proper gain staging is important to the fidelity and cohesiveness of your mix. As previously stated, obtaining clean and healthy signals for each track is perhaps the most important part of structuring a mix; as every decision you make from here on out is directly affected by your choices in gain staging.

  9. As a quick aside, it’s important to capture wild tracks on-set when possible (audio intended to be synchronized later on). This will save you from a great deal of ADR in post production (a few extra minutes on set could save you countless hours later).

  10. As you structure your mix, it’s imperative to create sonic depth for the picture. This is done by adjusting and fine-tuning each track’s dB control; creating a sonically rich and diverse atmosphere. You can further create depth and separation in your mix with the addition of reverb sends, but we’ll get to that later. This is where your mix should start to shine; before any compression, EQ or reverb effects have been used.

  11. You generally want your master channel to be peaking around -15dB to -12dB in it’s loudest moments, as it’s important to leave plenty of headroom for mastering. Generally speaking, it’s better to reduce the volume of all the other tracks, rather than boost any one volume. Don’t be afraid to drastically reduce the volume of a track only to gradually bring it up again to find that “pocket” where it belongs. Personally, I find this method much easier than reducing the track’s dB starting at a high volume.

  12. Compression

  13. Applying compression to your dialogue tracks, as well as the rest of your mix, tends to be a subjective matter. So let’s explore that for a moment…

  14. Most every engineer uses compression; with a few carving themselves into this niche (in what has become popular over the years). Compression, gating and expansion all represent the dynamics family of processors by altering the dynamic range of your signal. When squashing your signal into a narrowed dynamic range, the audio is better controlled: it will fit into your mix easier and appear to sound more full.

从你的现场录音师(Sound Recordist)和吊杆员(Boom Operator)那儿拿到高质量的录音素材,是做好混音的第一步。电影中的对白是非常重要的部分,它在情感上向观众传达了画面上正在发生着什么。
增益层次(Gain Staging)和音量(Volume)

良好的增益管理是电影混音中真实感(Fidelity)和统一感(Cohesiveness)的重要保证。在一开始构建混音工程时很重要的一步,就是保证每一轨上的声音都是干净和健康的(Clean and Healthy)。自此开始,你做的每一个决定都会直接影响到在增益管理中的选择和操作。
首先说个题外话,但也是非常重要的,在一开始尽可能把各种素材轨道都安排好,因为之后音频文件将要进行同步。这步操作会在后期大量ADR(译者注:Automatic Dialogue Replacement,即后期对白配音)工作时帮你节省不少时间。
  1. Most can attest to a threshold ratio somewhere between 2:1 and 6:1 with the attack and release set to fairly fast response times. Though again, there are no rules here. It is best to use one’s better judgement, and most importantly your ears, when determining how much compression to use.

  2. If you have a dialogue track that has a fair amount of ambience noise that you cannot eradicate, you don’t want to use much compression. Because the compressor is “leveling out” the signal, all of that background noise will be boosted to an uncomfortably high noise floor. Yet another reason why it’s very important to have clean dialogue tracks from the get-go.

  3. EQ

  4. Before you begin equalizing your dialogue, soundtrack, or the entire mix, there are a few things to keep in mind about frequency ranges. To avoid a muddy mix, it’s important that each track’s sonic range of frequency is balanced to allow all audio components enough frequency space to breathe. See the image below for a more visual explanation (click for larger view):



如果你的对白轨中有相当多的不能去除的环境噪音,那就不能使用太多的压缩。因为压缩器会将信号进行“平均化”(Leveling Out),这会提升底噪电平到一个明显可闻且非常恼人的程度。这也恰恰解释了,为什么从一开始就要获得干净的对白轨道是何等的重要。

在你开始对各条音轨或是整个混音进行均衡操作前,关于频率范围有几点需要牢记在心。为了避免混浊(Muddy)的混音,对每一条音轨进行频率平衡调整是非常重要的,以此来保证任何一个音响元素都能足够的频率空间来展现。下图是一张来自 Waterline Media(http://www.waterlinemedia.tv/)的有关乐器频率范围及均衡调节技巧的详细图表。

  1. The human voice generally sits smack in the middle of the frequency range. Therefore: you can cut the top and bottom of all the dialogue. A low-pass and high-pass filter is generally what you want to use. This eliminates all of the low and high frequencies that are not necessary for the human voice’s frequency spectrum: the low rumble of a your generator that perhaps was too close to the set, a big truck driving by, or even the movement of your boom operator’s fingers on his pole. To eliminate these cut below 100 Hz and above 10 KHz.

  2. Always EQ the dialogue with the entire mix playing so that you’re not soloing the tracks and working in the dark. Otherwise this can create problems with dialogue clarity in the entire mix. Below are a few tips and tweaks when addressing your dialogue (reverse for opposite effect):
  3. •Male fullness= Boost 120 Hz
  4. •Female fullness= Boost 240 Hz
  5. •General Dialogue= Boost 2.5KHz
  6. •Nasally dialogue= Cut between 2 KHz – 4KHz
  7. •Male sibilance=  Cut between 4KHz – 6 KHz
  8. •Female sibilance= Cut between 6KHz – 8KHz
  9. •Increase vocal presence= Boost 5KHz

  10. Reverb

  11. Early reflections to the human voice can contribute a great deal of presence and realism that EQ simply cannot recreate. Placing the dialogue in the correct acoustical space is a crucial element to obtaining good sound design and a solid mix. This is especially true for ADR work.

  12. Because of the different types of reverbs and effects, the decisions you make creating your acoustical space will vary drastically from each scene, person, and the placement of your actor in relation to the camera angle. For example, your actor may be speaking directly at the camera, then completely turn his/her back to the camera speaking into the distance. Remember, the camera is the audience’s point of view.

  13. So, how would you best demonstrate this in your mix? Usually by automating the volume, reverb, and low-pass filter to the desired effect. EQ is your friend here too. But again, there are no rules. Generally, you want a far-sounding verb and a near-sounding verb on your reverb busses to obtain the correct atmospheric mix.

  14. Summary

  15. We take in a huge variety of noises and sounds in our everyday lives. The sound designer is always taking advantage of these opportunities, consistently thinking outside the box. They are continually scheming and searching for the best way to create engaging soundscapes through experimentation.

  16. Need music for your film or video projects? Check out our curated royalty free music library.

人声一般都主要集中在中频段。所以,你通常可以使用低通/高通滤波器来去掉对白中的那些不必要的 100Hz 以下的低频和 10KHz 以上的高频部分,比如发电机产生的低频振动,飞驰而过的大卡车,更或者是吊杆员手指在杆上的摩擦声。(译者注:切记不可去除过多!可用插件上的 Bypass 按钮来比较处理前后的效果差异。另外,注意降噪处理器对于人声的损害,过度降噪会明显降低语音质量,比如产生高频哨声。)

所以你该如何处理这样的画面?通常,调节音量、混响和低通滤波器,别忘了均衡。再说一遍,参数调节没有准则可据。一般来说,你可以在混响总线上调节远距离混响(Far-sounding Verb)和近距离混响(Near-sounding Verb)的比例来获得正确的声学效果。



奇鹿 发表于 2014-8-18 19:05:14 | 显示全部楼层
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